GIA - Gemalogical Institute of America
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How GIA Grades Diamonds

How GIA Grades Diamonds GIA revolutionized the diamond industry in 1955 with its Diamond Grading Report. Based on the 4Cs of diamond value and International Diamond Grading System™, both of which GIA created, the grading report provides a comprehensive analysis of quality and authenticity for diamonds in the D-to-Z color range. It contains information on diamond shape and cutting style, measurements and weight, proportions and finish, along with grades for clarity, color, and cut. In addition, it identifies any known treatments. While a number of laboratories issue similar reports, the GIA Diamond Grading Report has earned a reputation for unrivaled accuracy and integrity when assigning diamond grades.

For stones between 0.15 and 1.99 carats, GIA offers the Diamond Dossier®. It contains the same information found on the traditional diamond grading report but in a more compact format. As an added security measure, the Diamond Dossier® includes a laser inscription of the identification number. A professional jeweler can arrange to have your diamond graded.

To determine carats, the diamond is weighed using an extremely accurate electronic micro-balance that captures the weight to the precise fifth decimal place (the nearest ten-thousandth of a carat). An optical measuring device is used to determine the diamond's proportions, measurements, and facet angles. This data is uploaded into Horizon, GIA's computerized operations and information management system.

Since light source and background can have a significant impact on a diamond's appearance, color is graded in a standardized viewing environment against color masters. A minimum of two color graders enter their independent evaluations into the system and depending on the agreement of these grades, and the weight and quality of the diamond, it may be sent to additional graders who enter their own color opinions. The grade is not determined until there is sufficient consensus.

Diamond clarity is graded under standard viewing conditions with 10x magnification. The preliminary grader carefully examines the diamond in order to identify clarity/finish characteristics and evidence of any clarity treatments such as fracture filling or laser drilling.

A minimum of two graders assigns their impression of the diamond's clarity, polish, and symmetry. Next, they plot the clarity characteristics on the diagram most representative of the diamond's shape and faceting style, selected from a database of hundreds of digitally stored diagrams. Also during this process, the stone is screened to determine if it is synthetic.

GIA provides a cut quality grade for standard round brilliant diamonds that fall into the D-to-Z color range. To develop their Cut Grading System, GIA performed extensive computer modeling of round brilliant diamonds over a 15 year period and conducted more than 70,000 observations on actual stones to validate the research. This system can now predict the cut grade for more than 38.5 million proportion sets.

GIA's Diamond Cut Grading System assesses the diamond's overall face-up appearance to predict the intensity levels of brightness, fire, and scintillation (the diamond's sparkle and interplay with light). The result is a comprehensive Cut Grading System that accurately reflects all the critical cut factors of a round brilliant diamond.

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